Saturday, March 14, 2020

Essay Sample on Advertising in Society and Its Dubious Role

Essay Sample on Advertising in Society and Its Dubious Role Beyond doubt, advertising is as old as the first market. Right now it is an inseparable part of our lives. We can see commercials everywhere: on TV, in newspapers and in streets. We really ought to lay our account with this issue today. Advertising companies influence our minds beyond measures on our society, but is this impact positive or not? We often lay at the door of some companies, using aggressive management to win a market. All sorts of corporations do it with two purposes: to lay hold on the market and raise as much money as possible This means they create a strong positive image of a hero, who promotes some brand. Such a strategy is supposed to lay a strong foundation of positive image, connected with this or that brand. These role models influence peoples minds a lot. Consumers wish to be on the level with the ad hero and but expensive cars, gadgets and perfumes. When the company’s CEO makes the decision, he lays a lot at stare. Unfortunately, while using such strategies, companies do not care about the society. Most of them just want to earn as much money, as possible. Ideologies that advertising promotes are often cruel and anti-social. Plenty of commercials are violent, racist or use sexual images. While trying to promote their goods, corporations often humiliate other trademarks. And finally, most of the information we receive from the ads is simply not true. Some activists often try to raise this point in front to government officials, but the politicians minds are mostly at the back of beyond. This happens because aggressive management strategies are bringing profit sometimes beyond anybodys belief. Although advertising has its darker sides, it also brings us a lot of good. We learn about new products and sops from commercials. We also can find better or cheaper goods, using our TV-sets. While creating strong positive stereotypes, advertising agencies make people care about the physical condition. When Michael Jordan or Ralf Schumacher agitate for a healthy way of life, this makes people think about their health. A successful advertising policy can raise some forgotten product from the dead. And finally, brands that are being advertised, actually invest billions into the today’s mass media. Advertising plays a dubious role in our todays world. This is the issue that cant and shouldn’t be laid down. Commercials create stereotypes and destroys them; stimulates us and makes us more aggressive. If controlled and leveled, the role of advertising is generally beneficial. If you need custom essay, research paper, thesis or term paper on Sociology or Business issues feel free to contact our professional custom writing service.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Soul and Justice in the works of Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus Essay

Soul and Justice in the works of Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus - Essay Example This essay discusses that Plato (428-347 BC) defined the soul’s parts as appetite, spirit, and reason. A just society would also have this structure: the productive (worker) class (appetite part of the soul); the protective (warrior) class (spirit part of the soul); and the governing (ruling) class (reason part of the soul). Individual justice would consist of the appetite part of the soul obeying the reason part, with the aid of the spirit part of the soul. Any deviation from this order would result in an unjust individual or society. Justice to Plato meant harmony with each fulfilling his role. Plato’s ideal city was meant as a model for an individual to set up the government of their soul. Aristotle (384-322 BC), a student of Plato, presents his theory of the soul in â€Å"De Anima†. Soul is the incorporeal essence or life-force of a living thing, inseparable from the body and existing as the cause of the body’s movement and of its end. Souls have diffe rent parts that different kinds of souls may contain. Plants have souls providing them with nourishment and reproduction. Animals have souls that also enable motion and differing numbers of senses. Humans have all this plus rational soul, which has two parts: the possible intellect, holding all the possible thoughts; and the agent intellect, bringing actual thoughts into act. The mind (agent intellect part of the soul) is immaterial and cannot be corrupted; therefore the mind is immortal. Justice to Aristotle was a character trait or virtue (Aristotle, trans. 1934, Book V). Just people are those who seek their fair share and follow the law. Aristotle distinguished between two types of justice: distributive justice, where resources must be distributed equally; and rectificatory justice, where personal transactions must be fair and equal. Whereas Plato based his ideas of justice on the ideal city and good, Aristotle viewed justice more practically as being equality in transactions. Pl ato offered us one ideal vision of a perfect city and justice; in contrast, Aristotle thought some rules of justice were ordained by nature, but those made by men varied between places. Both Aristotle and Plato viewed justice as harmony in societal interactions. Epicurus (341-270 BC) takes the soul and everything except the void to be made of atoms moving in an infinite universe. His â€Å"Letter to Herodotus† (Epicurus, trans. 1996) explains mental function as a result of movement of specialized neural atoms. The soul is corporeal; nothing is incorporeal except empty space. Epicurus taught that the soul ends with death of the body and no longer has sentience. To Epicurus, justice is an agreement to neither harm nor be harmed, an agreement that people deem useful. Usefulness,

Monday, February 10, 2020

CASE STUDY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

CASE STUDY - Essay Example The business’ vision to be the most consumer-centric business in its industry reflects how Amazon continues to develop strategies, both corporate-level and business-level, to ensure that it fulfils these promises for focus on providing value to its many diverse markets. One method of promoting this value and convenience is the recent program entitled Frustration-Free Packaging, which was designed to ensure consumers could easily remove their products from Amazon’s packaging. Cloud computing, additionally, provides its developer customers with low-cost IT services and the ability to outsource many business functions for further cost-savings. The continual development of new services, such as the MP3 Music Store, allowing for television program viewing, and launch of the Office Supplies Store in 2008, illustrates the constant evolution of the business model that caters to a wide variety of target markets with varying needs. Innovation, as compared to competition, is what makes this business model difficult to replicate by rivals and secures the promises of being consumer-centric that makes up the foundation of corporate strategy. Amazon’s CEO, Jeff Bezos, is a firm believer in corporate frugality. In the company’s headquarters, this thrift is evident with employee desks that have been recycled from doors, at an estimated cost of $130 USD and monitors that rest on telephone books to avoid the high costs of stands (University of Graz 2013). Amazon maintains very powerful competitive advantage as it relates to human capital, having established a firm set of values and a shared vision that allows for decentralised business function for better teamwork and interpersonal relationship development. In order to develop the appropriate service culture necessary for Amazon to achieve its mission of consumer-centrism, the organisation must have leadership that

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Operational Systems in Early Years Essay Example for Free

Operational Systems in Early Years Essay Structure of the day is one operational system that needs to be in place within an early years setting. This is because, it allows the setting to run smoothly as everyone knows what they need to do and when. Operational systems and financial systems are important elements of a business plan which enable a service to run efficiently. There are many operational systems and financial systems involved in a service. Task 2: Structure of the day: There are many ways in which this operational system impact on early years or play works services. It allows everyone to know their roles and what they need to do throughout the day. This will allow the service to run smoothly as people will not be wondering what needs to be done and things will then get done correctly instead of being left. Due to this, things like forms for the amount children eat and their behaviour will also be carried out correctly as there will be a designated member of staff who has to fill in the paper work for the room they are working in by the end of the day. If the setting has structured the day well enough then the member of staff will have time to write up the information as it comes instead of doing it all at the end of the day. This is because, if the practitioner leaves it until the end of the day, they may forget important bits of information and therefore will not be able to report back to parents correctly. This operational system also helps to keep the organised. However, there are a few problems with this operational system. If a member of staff rings in sick then it may be hard to find cover and therefore, the structure of the day will be jeopardised. Due to this, the day will not run smoothly as there will not be enough members of staff in the setting, meaning that everyone will be panicking and jobs and paperwork will not get done correctly. Especially if the member of staff who has rang in sick is designated with important jobs for that day. It may also be the case that other people are unaware of how to carry out the member of staff jobs and therefore, they will not get done until that member of staff comes into work. If some job roles are linked together, i.e. paperwork then this could also mean that other jobs cannot get done. As a result, the structure of the day will be ruined and the setting will not run smoothly. For this operational system to work effectively there needs to be correct effective communication in place. However, if this does not happen then this operational system wills no work. Health and safety: This operational system has a huge impact on early years or play works services, and it is very important to keep a service running smoothly and effectively. However, there are many positive and negatives points to this operational system. It keeps staff, children, visitors and anyone who may enter or work in the service safe. This happens as the operational system will include task like carrying out a risk assessment daily to reduce the risk of hazards and anyone getting injured. Due to this, the system can be made suitable to the specific setting as each setting may have different hazards. Also, each setting has different health and safety requirements; this is why it is important to have an operation system to each individual service so it fits in correctly and will work appropriately. This system will outline the procedures the staffs need to know and follow to abide to the healthy and safety rules. Due to the setting making them themselves, they will be able to make them simple enough for everybody to understand and follow. This will ensure that the healthy and safety within the setting will be followed correctly and there will be a reduced risk of people getting hurt. Members of staff will also be aware of what to do if a child falls poorly whilst attending the setting. Another positive is that it will give the staff, parents and children a sense of security as they will know they are safe and are able to relax. Therefore, there will not be any one getting stressed, worried or frustrated at the thought that someone might get hurt, as all hazards should have been removed to reduce the chance of this happening. On the other hand, there are also negative points about health and safety as an operational system. This is because, it can be quite time consuming for the setting to create, therefore this may be taking up members of staff valuable time that needs to be spent else where. Due to this, another part of the setting may not run as it should, for example, lunch time. There may not be enough members of staff helping out at that time if some are busy creating and readjusting the operational system. Also, to add to the time of creating it, someone needs to take the time to review the system and add or take away things when it needs updating. This could be very costly to the service because they will have to pay for things like the system to be printed, staff training on the different systems, and health and safety is a big system for staff to become knowledgeable about. Security of the building: The main impact that security of the building has on early years or play work services, is that it keeps everyone safe. Settings will have equipment installed to ensure that only the correct people are entering the building, for example, they may have a bell or a password on the main entrance door, and other doors are only able to be opened from the inside. This also means that they are able to adapt the building however they need. Some nurseries may have to have walls, gates or fences built around their outdoor play area. However, some building may not have to do this as there is already a wall there. Due to this, the setting will also be able to install equipment that will be suitable to the children’s needs. Some settings may have high door handles that the children cannot reach so they can’t let themselves out or open the door and get their fingers trapped in it. A sense of security will also be built up in the setting as everyone will be aware that it is secure and safe. This may also make parents feel better leaving their child at the setting. However, like any operational system, this one also has negatives aspects. Finding a good quality company to get the equipment off and for them to install it may become difficult. A setting will need a reliable company who is willing to come out at late notice when possible to install equipment. The setting also needs to be able to find a company that has their equipment at a reasonable price or else it may become very expensive for the setting. If a good quality company cannot be found, then equipment could be faulty putting the staff, children and visitors safety at risks. It could also then take a long time for the setting to be able to get the equipment fixed, causing problems and unneeded stress. As some equipment might be seen as good, there are also some impractical equipment, for example, if the setting has a bell for people to get in, it may be too loud and then wake up the children who are trying to sleep. Task 3: Within an early years or play work setting there is an operation system for the management and ordering of supplies. One current operational system that I have witnessed was at my primary school. Each classroom teacher recorded the supplies that they might need throughout the term, including books, pencils, paint, games, and work sheets and so on. Once they had done this, they then had to send their list to the lady in the office who would record what supplies the teachers requested onto an ordering form. She would also keep a record of what each teacher asked for so everyone could have the correct stuff. When it came to ordering things like food for school dinners, this was the chef’s responsibility. Each morning, the classroom teacher would ask each child who was having hot dinners what they would like, and there would be a meat and a vegetarian option. From this the chef would then be able to cook the correct amount of food each day. To order fresh food, the chef would do this once a week handing the order list to the office. However, with things like tin food, this would be brought in bulk at the beginning of each half term. For cleaning equipment, the head cleaner would create the ordering form to give to the office and this would include providing cleaning wipes for tables outside each classroom and soap for the toilets and so on. When it comes to the management of the operational system, this is down to the lady in the office as she is the one who rings through to the companies and places the orders and makes a time and date in which everything can be delivered. She keeps a record of past orders to make sure they are roughly ordering the same things each time an order is put in. This will help financial budgets as well. I do believe that the schools ordering of supplies operational system works effectively. The operational system is working well because there is someone to monitor what is being ordered and manage the system. This helps so staffs are aware who to send their order form to, if there are any problems then there is also someone that they can approach to try and solve the issue. All staff is able to put in an ordering form so nothing gets missed and the person in charge is then able to check the orders to ensure that staff are not spending too much money and are being realistic so the school can afford it. The school order supplies at realistic times to ensure that they do not run out of things they need especially things like hot dinners for the children. As a school, they have built up a good relationship with their suppliers and in time of need they can get a next delivery if something drastic happens. Another good point about this operational system is that the person, who manages it, also manages the financial records meaning that they will have a good understanding of what is coming in and going out. They will also be knowledgeable of how to make orders and will know appropriate times in which it can be delivered. however, the only problem is, if the member of staff who always puts the orders through is off work due to sickness, holiday or anything then it could mean that the school do not get there order through on time as know one else will know how to do. Therefore it would be a good idea for them to allow another member of staff knows how to do it so they can make an order if needs be. Schools need financial resources to function. School finances should be carefully managed according to regulations. Financial summaries provide information about the flow of a school’s financial resources, both into the school (income or revenue) and out of the school (expenditure). Financial records within the school are kept within the management office together with all supporting documents, e.g. receipts, invoices, bills and payment records. Access to financial records is restricted to the head teacher and member of staff in charge of the finance. The school has to keep their financial records for a minimum of 5 years. Financial records are kept both on the computer and in filing cabinets. The school has a spreadsheet on the computer in which everything they have to pay for is listed and all the incoming money is also listed. The financial records that are kept in the filing cabinet include things like receipts for orders, and things that they cannot put on the computer. Receipts allow the school to look back to ensure that the money going out is the same as the receipts for things that they have brought. The school has to record their financial income and expenditure. Income that the school records include: school fees, renting out facilities, donations, local community, government and expenditure that the school record includes: construction/repairs, equipment, and rental of premises, teacher salaries, school meals, electricity, telephone, water and maintenance. The school uses the financial summaries to monitor, verify and control the financial position of the school. Bibliography: Gill Squire. (2007): BTEC National Diploma Childrens Care Learning Development: Essex

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Family Day Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Family Day When I was around 6, I had gotten out of church wearing my nice church clothes with a tie, shoes, dressy pants, and a blazer. I was with my mom, dad, brother, and sister, who all had on church clothes too. My sister had the same things my mom had on, a black long skirt with an expensive white shirt. My brother and dad had on the same thing too: black shoes, navy blue pants, black bowtie and white shirt. I was the only one with a blazer on. My siblings and I were really happy we all went to church together, so I guess my dad was happy because of that, but he had a tired look on his face too.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After church, my parents decided we should go to the botanical gardens and spend the rest of the day there. My dad had an old Chevy that sounded pretty good; it got us where we needed to go. It had some rust on the edges here and there, but all and all it was a good running car. The inside smelled like pine because my dad washed the car that mourning and he always bought a freshener to make it smell like that. I never knew why he liked that smell because I hated it; it always got me sick in that car, but today I didn’t mind because we were going to have a fun time in the Botanical Gardens.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Botanical Gardens had a parking lot in front but you had to pay to get in. My dad was too cheap to pay, so he just parked it outside th...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Apple: the Company’s Visions and Objectives Essay

Apple’s Vision was the Macintosh that was called â€Å"digital hub† that isa popular model of computer introduced in 1984, that features a graphical user interface ( GUI) that utilizes windows, icons, and a mouse to make it relatively easy for novices to use the computer productively. Rather than learning a complex set of commands, that wasonly need point to a selection on a menu and click a mouse button. Moreover, the GUI is embedded into the operating system. This means that all application that run on a Macintosh computer have a similar user interface. Once a user has become familiar with one application, he or she can learn new applications relatively easily. The success of the Macintosh GUI heralded a new age of graphics-based applications and operating systems. The Windows interface copies many features from the Mac. There are many different Macintosh models, with varying degrees of speed and power. All models are available in many different configurations. All models since 1994 are based on the PowerPC microprocessor. They believed had a real advantage for consumers who were becoming entrenched in a digital lifestyle. Also, digital cameras, portable music players, and digital camcorders. That they though could be the preferred hub to control integrate, and add value to the devices. Also to control of both hardware and software.Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. Apple’s Mission Was to bring an easy-to use computer to market, which led release of the Apple II in 1978. Also, Apple is committed to protecting the environment, health and safety of their employees, customers and the global communities where they operate. They can offer technologically innovative products and services while conserving and enhancing recourses for future generations. Goals:The goal was to differentiate the Macintosh amid intense competition in the PC industry. And state of affairs, or a state of concrete activity, which an organization or system wishes to achieve or obtain. Objective Is the plan, to involve and implement actions which must be taken to close the gap between the current realities and the ideal state?Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS, PC CPU, MP3 , iPhone 4, 4s , iPad, and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store, and has recently introduced iPad which is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices. Corporation Governance:Agency Theory: Was in 1981 when the IBM introduced the IBM PC to the market that used Microsoft’s DOS and a microprocessor (CPU), by that apple practice integration and refused to license its hardware to third parties. But IBM gained more market share and also emerged a new for the industry more than Apple. That was when apple introduced the Macintosh in 1984 that was easy to use with industrial design and elegance, but the processor was slow in speed and that lack of compatibility on sale, and Apple net income fell 62 % between the years 1981 and 1984, and sending the Apple Company into a crisis. That contributed with the job was forced out in the 1985 even his called himself as a soul of the company. After that the boardroom hired John Sculley, who was recognized for his marketing skills. He was in the company for 8 years from 1985 to 1993, who pushed the mac in the new market where the Apple was driven by its best software, such page Market, and peripheral with laser printers. Also in education Apple grabbed more than haft the market. With that Apple recovered and stabilized around 8% in share worldwide, and in 1990 Apple sale $1 billion dollars in cash and was cognized at the most profitable PC company in the world. Stewardship Theory: In the years of Sculley, the Apple Company offered to the customers a better offer by a completed desktop solution ever that was included hardware, software, and simply plug and play. Also the company designing unique chips, disk drive, and monitors. He demonstrated his interest on the company success. And interest in customer’s satisfaction, Apple was selling its products at a premium price.This time Macs had more than $10,000, and gross profit around anadvantageous 50%. Sarbanes –Oxley: That was applied in the years 2010 and 2011 when the patent wars started with competition in the smartphone industry, where everyone sued everyone. Where creative companies begindisappears or never gets start. Apple litigated against Android, HTC, and Samsung. Also Apple turnaround in 1997 when jobs reshape Apple and announced that they would invest $ 150 million in Apple and made five years develop core products, like MS Office for the mac. By satisfy about 99% of customers and again job refused to license the latest mac. Also, the company 15 product lines were divided in only four categories that were desktop, portable Macintoshes, for customers and professionals. Another improvement that job did was to hire Taiwanese contract to manufacture mac products. Therefore, in 1998 Apple had a website direct sale for the first time. Corporation Social Responsibility: News of Steve Jobs’ death sent shockwaves through the technology industry, a world that he, in large part, shaped with his career. Apple’s executives are now left with the challenge of how to lead a company, whose identity has been inextricably linked to Jobs’ for decades. The task is formidable, especially when Apple’s fanatically loyal customer base is considerably less certain about what to expect from CEO Tim Cook. That is partly because Apple’s culture of secrecy and Jobs’ visibility have combined to make Cook relatively unknown to the public at large. The uncertainty is compounded by the fact that earlier attempts to replace Jobs proved disastrous.Until now, Jobs seems to be the only one to have had that special chemistry required for running Apple.What makes leading Apple difficult to maintain is the fact that the company is not selling a product as much as it is a vision, the founder’s vision. Apple products were well built and beautiful to look at. According to recent media coverage, it would seem that Apple is interested in developing a new vision, one which includes Corporation Social Responsibility. Jobs never showed much interest in public ‘do-gooding.’ He always maintained that equipping the public with the best technology is worth more than cash grants to charities. But Cook announced that Apple would embrace a new corporate charity matching program, using a model much like those of other major companies a dollar for dollar match for employee donations of up to $10,000 a year. Cook clearly wants to send the message that Apple is evolving in the way it perceives Corporation Social Responsibility, a major differentiating factor between himself and his charismatic predecessor. However, the decision curiously followed media allegations regarding Apple’s lack of Corporation Social Responsibility activities, including a New York Times article mentioning matching as a solution employed by a considerable porti on of the Fortune 500 companies.Apple still needs to embrace the core values that make it a â€Å"cool† company in short, that owning an Apple product secure membership in a select group. While Apple is perhaps overdue for a Corporation Social Responsibility strategy, the decision to enact donation matching is decidedly not the â€Å"Apple Way. Cook is only responding to media pressure rather than bringing to Corporation Social Responsibility the same kind of innovative and inspiring vision for which Apple is so highly regarded. And in that regard, the corporate matching program is a fail.Developing a Corporation Social Responsibility strategy around neither a sense of obligation nor calculation but rather around certain well defined character virtues is highly effective. In particular, integrity, empathy and zeal, among others, are critical during times of Uncertaintythey need to be well coordinated and implemented from the inside,out not the other way around. Integrity: Any major organizational change is accompanied by insecurity. The transition from Jobs’ approach to hiring and firing is bound to create uncertainty among employees, and in corporate environments uncertainty inevitably creates pernicious maneuvering and second guessing at middle management levels. The new Corporation Social Responsibility initiatives should present both the company and its new CEO with a unique opportunity to promote an image of integrity and to differentiate the new leadership from that of the Jobs era. However, philanthropy is not a good place to start. It should start from inside, promoting trust and openness, the internal integrity. Empathy: Empathy creates emotional bonding between the company and stakeholders allowing companies to endure a difficult time. Apple is currently embroiled in lawsuits that are likely to restrict consumer choices in the future if it carries on. Publishers are frustrated by Apple’s hammerlock over apps and magazine subscriptions on the iPad. There have been indications that Samsung, Apple’s most threatening competitor, angered by patent law suits, will finally fight back to counter sue Apple. While from Apple’s point of view, taking legal action against competitors may seem necessary as a means of protecting innovation, public opinion works differently. For multinational companies the legal victory can often end with a kind of zero sum game, leaving it with a reputation for arrogance and insecurity. Apple will have to worry about its reputation all the more so if it wins the battles against competitors. Even more telling, the suicides at China’s manufacturing behemoth, Foxconn, have created the uncomfortable impression that â€Å"cool† products like the iPad are being produced by what amounts to economic slave labor. This is decidedly â€Å"uncool† and not the image that Apple wants to portray. Zeal: Zeal is perhaps the virtue most-embedded at Apple’s core and is represented by their continuous innovation and excitement in terms of products and customer experience. By emphasizing Corporation Social Responsibility, Tim Cook would need to bring that famous Apple zeal to social issues, offering an innovative approach, as competitor Google did, when it famously began encouraging its employees to spend 20% of their time on their own projects. It goes without saying that Cook and Apple are standing at a precipice. Product innovations can be short-lived. A serious Corporation Social Responsibility strategy could quietly shift Apple’s sales pitch from personal charisma to the great public good, doing Apple good in the long term. The leaders of innovative organizations that undergo the uncertainty that comes with change, would be wise to promote both integrity and empathy internally, thus ensuring that zeal continues to inspire consumers throughout their tenure and for years to come. External Factors In 1980, Apple became the PC industry leader selling more than 100,000 Apple IIs and launching a successful IPO. However, Apple’s competitive position changed fundamentally in 1981 when IBM entered the PC market. Apple’s ignorance to the industrial changes caused them to lose major PC market share by 62% sending the company into a crisis. Apple manages its business on geographic locations having offices in New York, Europe, Japan, and Asia. Apple’s sales are continuously growing. In the past decades the PC industry has evolved into the proprietary system and the open system. Let’s review Apple’s position in each phase. Proprietary Systems before 1981 Every PC producer had to develop their own hardware and software. It was proprietary, one that possesses, owns, or holds exclusive right to something. There were two mainstreams in the market, Apple style machine and IBM style machines. During this period, Apple was the leader selling more than 100,000 Apple IIs and launching a successful IPO. Its strong developing ability made the Apple brand a family commodity. Introduction of the â€Å"Open† System 1981-1997 IBM offered an â€Å"open† system in which other producers could clone causing competitors such as Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, and Dell to enter the market while Apple continued to practice limitability with a horizontal and vertical integration relying on its own proprietary designs. It was during this time that producers started separating hardware into CPUs (Central Processing Units), mother boards, disk drive, and other peripheral items. This change caused consumers to not only care about hardware performance, but also about software applications. IBM machines with Intel CPU and Windows Operating systems became the mainstream. IBM PCs not only gained more market share, but also emerged as the new standard for the industry. Apple continued to lose market share because corporate insisted on selling the products at a premium price and not upgrading its hardware and software to be compatible with IBM machines. Apple responded by introducing the Macintosh and entering new markets – desktop publishing and education- in 1984. It marked a breakthrough in ease of use, industrial design, and technical elegance. However the Mac’s slow processor speed and lack of compatible software limited sales. Apple’s desktop market was driven by its superior software and offered customers a complete desktop solution which allowed for simple â€Å"plug and play†. In education, they grabbed more than half the market, which is safe to say, helped Apple recover and stabilize bringing in revenue of $1 billion. Micro-Environment Micro-Environment is actors or elements in an organization’s immediate area of operations that affect its performance and decision making freedom. This environment can be explained using Porter’s five forces; –Rivalry among existing firms –Threat of substitute products –Bargaining power of buyers –Bargaining power of suppliers –Threat of new entrants As a computer producer company, Apple is faced with many strategic issues; Surviving competition, responding to technology innovation and continuous market needs. The technology industry can be considered to be monopolistic competition which is characterized by having a large number of competitors and gaining easy access into the industry due to low entry barriers. Supplier bargaining position is very strong due to a small number of existing processor suppliers, example Intel and AMD. Customer bargaining position is also strong due to low searching and switching costs. Both of these characteristics constrain companies in the industry. As a result, the market becomes saturated and fragmented which makes for only a small market share gained by every company. There are a lot of competitors offering similar products to Apple for example, Windows tablet, Samsung, Kindle, etc., with only little difference in features and design. Macro-Environment Macro Environment is defined as the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization’s decision making and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic factors, demographics, political, social conditions technological changes and natural forces. Specific examples of macro environment influences include competitors, changes in interest rates, and changes in cultural tastes. Technological Forces The main force that influences the computer industry is rapid and sustained technical progress. Each year, integrated circuits and other technological components become better, faster, and cheaper providing opportunities to improve on existing computers as well as designing a new one. Apple is strongly affected by technology innovation forces surrounding it. Rapid innovation on hardware by component producers, for example Intel & AMD and software by competitors (Microsoft) gives Apple no choice but to grasp and possibly enhance the new hardware technology and also continue innovating to sustain differentiation. Microsoft which dominates the operating system producer for Intel based computers is a main competitor for Apple. Microsoft releases new versions of Windows every two (2) years creating pressure for Apple to upgrade MacOS as well. Political forces With China joining the WTO creates opportunity as well as threats to Apple. Lower investment barrier and market barrier gives opportunities for Apple to take advantage of low cost labor as well as getting potential market. However, on the other hand, similar opportunities exist to competitors. When competitors move its plant into China and become more efficient, Apple has to respond or they will experience cost inefficiency disadvantage over competitors. Social Forces Different and dynamic change of needs and lifestyle requires Apple to continuously innovate to adapt. Consumer’s tastes, lifestyles, and needs are rapidly changing. Apple has also been criticized by many environmental organizations for not being a leader in removing toxic chemicals from its new products. Because of the social pressure regarding environmental issues, Apple has to invest in R&D to become environmentally friendly. The collaboration of Political, Economic, Social and Technological forces creates an intricate environment. Apple has to keep in step with new technology, innovate to be different, and continually modify to its customer needs and demands. The instantaneous changes in technology and low entry barrier cause the durability of Apple products to become obsolete.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Solar Winds and Lightning Strikes

When you go outdoors for play or work, it probably never occurs to you that the lovely yellow Sun that heats and warms our planet is also responsible for a whole raft of other actions that affect us and our planet. Its true — and without the Sun we wouldnt have the beauty of the northern and southern lights, or — as it turns out — some of the lightning strikes that come during thunderstorms. Lightning strikes?   Really? Lets take a look at how that might be a solar effect. The Sun-Earth Connection The Sun is a somewhat active star. It regularly sends out giant outbursts called solar flares and coronal mass ejections. The material from these events rides out from the Sun on the solar wind, which is a constant stream of energetic particles called electrons and protons. When those charged particles get to Earth, some interesting things can happen.   First, they encounter Earths magnetic field, which protects the surface and lower atmosphere from the solar wind by deflecting the energetic particles around the planet. Those particles DO interact with the topmost layers of the atmosphere, often creating northern and southern lights. If the solar storm is strong enough, our technology can be affected — telecommunications, GPS satellites, and electrical grids — can be disrupted or even shut down.   What About the Lightning? When these charged particles   have enough energy to penetrate down into the cloud-forming regions of the Earths atmosphere, they can affect our weather.  Scientists found evidence that some lightning strikes on Earth may well be triggered by energetic particles from the Sun that reach our planet via the solar wind. They measured significant increases in lightning rates across Europe (for example) that occurred for up to 40 days after the arrival of particles carried by high-speed solar winds.   Nobodys quite sure how this works, but scientists are working to understand the interactions. Their data show that electrical properties of the air are somehow changed as the incoming charged particles collide with the atmosphere. Can Solar Activity Help Weather Prediction? If you could predict an increase in lightning strikes by using solar wind streams, that would be a real boon to weather forecasters. Since the solar wind can be tracked by spacecraft, having advance knowledge of solar wind storms would give weather forecasters a significant  chance to warn people about upcoming thunder and lightning storms and their severity. It turns out that astronomers have long known that cosmic rays, which are tiny high-speed particles from across the universe have been thought to play a part in severe weather on Earth. The ongoing studies of charged particles and lightning shows that lower-energy particles created by our own Sun also affect lightning. This is related to a phenomenon called space weather which is defined as geomagnetic disturbances caused by solar activity.   It can affect us here on Earth and in near-Earth space.  This new edition of the Sun-Earth connection, lets astronomers and weather forecasters learn more about both space weather and Earth weather. How Did Scientists Figure This Out? The record lightning strikes over Europe was compared with data from NASAs Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft, which lies between the Sun and the Earth and measures the characteristics of solar winds. It is one of NASAs workhorse space weather and solar activity observatories. After the arrival of the  solar wind at the Earth, the researchers showed there was an average of 422 lightning strikes across the UK in the following 40 days, compared to an average of 321 lightning strikes in the 40 days before the solar winds arrival. They noted that the rate of lightning strikes peaked between 12 and 18 days after the arrival of the solar wind. Long-term studies of the connection between the Suns activity and Earthly thunderstorms should give scientists useful tools not just for understanding the Sun, but also to help predict storms here at home.